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Trolleybus History In Russia.

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Moscow Trolleybus went extinct in 2020.

The idea of a trolleybus belongs to German Dr. William Siemens, founder of well-known Siemens Company. He offered an idea to provide an electricity via contact network, wires to the motor, mounted in the carriage. Such a vehicle, named 'electromot', was presented in Halensee ( near Berlin) in 1882. William Siemens worked in England and had his three Siemens factories there, so the idea for a trolleybus is just as much British as German. 'Electromot' was a show runner, the route was only 540m long and functioned for onlt two months.

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Electromot, 1882.

Experiments with an electric powered transpot were made in several countries, inluding The Russian Empire. The first national electro-powered vehicle was created at Frezee Factory in St.Peterburg in 1902.

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In America, where the electrification of tramways was just beginning, Belgian Charles Van Depoele patented a under-running trolley wheel pressed against an overhead wire in 1882 in Chicago.

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Railless Electric Traction Co. trolleybus.

On 20 June 1911 when Leeds and Bradford opened Britain's first trolleybus services the vehicles used had 'improved' bases. The trolleys of the Leeds and Bradford cars were of "Railless Electric Traction Co.'s double trolley type, the vehicle could run at a distance of not less than 4,50m from the centre of the trolley wires".

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LK-1 trolleybus.

The first trolleybus LK-1 in the Soviet Union run in Moscow in 1933. Next and widely popular trolleybus was YTB-1 (Yaroslavl Trolley Bus -1), made in Yaroslavl.

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LK-1 trolleybus.

900 vehicles were made until the end of production in 1937. Only one YTB-1 has survived and is preserved in the Moscow Transport Museum. There were 10 regular trolleybus routs in 1939.

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YTB-1 (Yaroslavl Trolley Bus).

First double-decker troleybuses were imported from England in 1937. It was the first and the last double-decker transport in Russia since. Only 10 troleybuses were bought in England and they did not live long in Moscow.

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Later on, double double-decker troleybuses began to produce in Yaroslavl. And its name was YTB-3, which offered a great comfort for the passengers. They were very much of a copy from the imported English vehicles.

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Moscow in 1939.
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During war period trolleybuses were used as cargo transport. Most of the trucks were commisioned to the front and this formed a deficit for vahicles on city-use. Some trolleybuses were converted into trolley-cars with a truck bed behind the driver's cabin.

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Following the suspension of trolleybus services due to World War II, the system was restored and expanded during the post-war era, reaching its maximum length in 1960-70s.

The factory in Tushino, Moscow was for many years the only production facility to make trolleybuses. Begining war in Korea in 1951 this factory abandoned trolleybus production and started MiG fighter jet plane construction run. Small town Engels in Saratov Region was the only place in Russia to make trolleybuses from 1952 onwards.

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The 1960s are the peak years for the trolleybus development in Moscow and the Soviet Union. Moscow network reached 1253 kms length by 1971 and it was the longest in the world.

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ZiU-5 (ЗиУ-5) holds the record of being the longest in the production run. The model was produced without notable changes during 20 years from 1959 till 1970.

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ZiU-5 (ЗиУ-5).

Articulated trolleybuses were popular in 1980-90s as they increased vehicle capasity without an adding more transport on th roads.

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An articulated trolleybus.

The decline of trolleybus services is explained by two factors:
— they consumed more electricity than the tam service;
— trolleybus is less flexible to compare with a bus service, it requires costly infrustructure.

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Leninsk-Kuznetsky (near Kemerovo in Siberia) with a population of 94 000 people is the smallest town with a trolleybus service. It has got 3 trolleybus routs serviced by 29 trolleybuses.

In the recient years trolleybuses are to return after an absence of many years in an attempt to rid cities of diesel fumes and tempt drivers out of their cars with the offer of smoother, faster journeys.

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The electric buses, which draw power from overhead lines via long poles attached to the roof, are being revived as a cheap alternative to tram networks, are too expensive.

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Английский язык *
Английский язык. Репетитор - Химки. Очно и по Скайп.
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